Describe the background information that is provided on the problem being investigated (i.e., framework, theories, constructs, past research)

Describe the background information that is provided on the problem being investigated (i.e., framework, theories, constructs, past research)

Learner Outcomes for the Final Exam

Given a research study or part of a research study be able to address the following using an essay format.
NOTE: Quote the text sparingly (and cite when you do). Explanations MUST be in your own words.
Writing, “the author said so,” is NOT an acceptable explanation and will not receive credit.
 Problem
o, Describe the background information that is provided on the problem being investigated
(i.e., framework, theories, constructs, past research).
o, Describe the educational or practical significance of the problem being investigated.
o, Describe the research problem (also referred to as the purpose statement).
o, Identify the characteristics of the study that point to this being a quantitative study.
 Research Questions and Hypotheses
o Identify if the study is associational, causal-comparative, or experimental and discuss what
lead you to this determination.
o, State the research questions. (The research questions may be implied.)
o State the research hypotheses (The research questions may be implied.)
o State the null hypotheses
o, Identify if hypotheses are directional, non-directional, or null.
o For each research question, identify the IV and DV variables and if the variables are
nominal or quantitative.
o Provide an operational definition for variables
 Participants
o, Describe the target population.
o, Describe the sample.
o Identify the specific type of sampling method used and discuss what lead you to this
determination.
o Discuss the appropriateness of generalizing (is the sample representative) from the
the sample used in this study to the target population.
o Discuss improvements that could be made to the sampling techniques to improve the
representativeness of the sample.

 Instruments and Measures
o List each instrument/measure and identify the variable(s) that is(are) being measured.
o For each of the instruments describe what evidence was provided on the instrument’s
validity (content, construct, criterion). If no evidence was provided state so.
o For each of the instruments describe what evidence was provided on the instrument’s
reliability (test-retest, equivalent forms, equivalent forms/retest, internal consistency,
scoring agreement). If no evidence was provided state so.
o For each instrument/measure, ANSWER: Was sufficient evidence of validity and reliability
provided. Support your decision (for reliability base your decision on numerical values).

 Results
o For data presented in a table comparing two or more groups: Identify the descriptive and
inferential statistics that are reported.
o For data presented in a table comparing two or more groups: Identify statistical and
practical significance (effect size).
o How do you know the researcher used the appropriate inferential and descriptive
statistics? Explain your reasoning.
o Use a p-value to determine the probability that the sample data were due to random
chance or error?

o Based on a p-value, describe In terms of hypothesis testing if you should reject the null
hypothesis of no difference and accept the research hypothesis (statistical significance)?
On what information did you base this decision?
o Using effect size (d) data, determine practical significance and discuss what this means
regarding the findings of a study. On what information did you base this decision?
o Using words: Interpret the findings in terms of where and how the group means differed
and whether or not the differences were statistically or practically significant.

 Critique
o Identify two threats to the internal validity of the study and discuss what lead you to this
determination. Threats must have been identified in the textbook. No credit for others.
o Considering your analysis of generalizability, instrument validity and reliability, internal
validity, and statistical and practical significance, discuss how these impact your overall
opinion of the usefulness of this study? Address at least two of the underlined concepts in
your response.

ANSWER.

PAPER DETAILS
Academic LevelHigh school
Subject AreaEducation
Paper Type Article review
Number of Pages6 Page(s)/1650 words
Sources1
Paper FormatAPA
SpacingDouble spaced
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