Discuss the concepts of silent racism, prejudice, and color­blind racism. How, according to Barbara Trepagnier, does silent racism differ from prejudice?


Exam 1 (60 points)


Respond to SIX of the following questions. You are welcome to respond to the questions in any order, but please number your responses accordingly. Each question is worth 10 points. Each response to the numbered questions (ex: A+B+C=200 total. NOT 200 each a,b,c etc.) must be 200 words or longer (in total). Responses that fall short of this requirement or do not follow the directions below will suffer a significant grade reduction. The readings and your notes are the only resources allowed (with the exception of questions that ask you to locate secondary resources). Several questions ask you to provide examples to support your assertions; examples can come from personal experience or secondary research. Be sure to fully address each question and provide specific examples from the text(s). You must cite (using MLA format in­text citations) ideas that are not your own; however, you do not need to include a Works Cited page for the assignment. While you are encouraged to include examples in the form of direct quotations, at least 50% of each response must be in your own words.




  1. What according to Peggy McIntosh, is white privilege? In what ways, per McIntosh, is white privilege invisible?
  2. What role, according to Frances Kendall AND George Lipsitz, do white people play in the continuance of white privilege? Include at least one connection you can make between Kendall and Lipsitz’s works.
  3. How does Eduardo Bonilla­Silva define projection and diminutives? Include an example of each in your response and detail why your examples fit Bonilla­Silva’s definitions.



  1. Discuss the concepts of silent racism, prejudice, and color­blind racism. How, according to Barbara Trepagnier, does silent racism differ from prejudice? Select TWO of the following three scholars (Barbara Trepagnier, Eduardo Bonilla­Silva, and Margaret Andersen) and discuss the extent to which the scholars present similar understandings of color­blind racism. Do their arguments on color­blind racism agree or disagree? How so?
  2. What, for Beverly Tatum, is the difference between prejudice and racism? What, according to Margaret Andersen, is the result of the ideology of color blindness?
  3. Provide one example of silent racism AND one example of color­blind racism; detail why your examples align with the definitions offered in Barbara Trepagnier’s text.



  1. How do Simon Clarke and Steve Garner AND/OR Woody Doane define whiteness studies? When did the field originate? What are its aims?
  2. Consider Margaret Andersen’s critique of whiteness studies and assess the validity of her critique.
  3. Address Robyn Wiegman’s description of the panoptic power of whiteness as “always present but never fully visible” (119). Is this an accurate assessment? Why or why not?



  1. In his introduction to How Racism Takes Place, George Lipsitz notes that “discrimination itself is a health hazard” (7). Place this assertion in conversation with Derald Wing Sue’s definition of microaggressions. To what extent does Sue’s argument align with Lipsitz’s? What, per Sue, are the consequences of microaggressions?
  2. Provide examples of TWO of the following (microassaults, microinsults, and microinvalidations); detail why your examples constitute that particular form of microaggression.
  3. In what ways, for Mary Waters, are social mobility and declining racial and ethnic sensitivity closely associated?



  1. What benefits, according to Simon Clarke and Steve Garner, does whiteness provide? How, according to Woody Doane, are racism and colonialism connected?
  2. When and why, per Woody Doane and Gary Taylor has the category of whiteness expanded or the terms used to describe racism changed? Include at least one connection you can make between Doane and Taylor’s works.
  3. When, according to Noel Ignatiev, did the birth of race occur? What two elements, per Howard Zinn, made American slavery the most cruel form of slavery in history?



  1. Discuss the concepts of Social Darwinism and environmental racism (as detailed in Paul Kivel’s text). What connections, if any, do you see between Social Darwinism and environmental racism? When, according to Paul Kivel, did scientific racism/Social Darwinism emerge?
  2. Research and detail one instance of environmental racism NOT INCLUDED in George Lipsitz’s discussion. Detail why your case fits Lipsitz’s definition of environmental racism. Be sure to provide the link to your supporting document.
  3. In ways was southern California’s image of whiteness a myth? How, specifically, was this myth constructed (according to Eric Avila’s work?) What role did the Federal Housing Administration (FHA) play in shaping neighborhoods?



  1. What similarities, per Peter Kolchin, do whiteness studies scholars share? What lies, according to Robert Jensen, surround whiteness?
  2. How, per Pamela Perry, does cultural invisibility function? What consequences occur when whiteness is viewed as cultureless or postcultural? To what extent do you agree that white identity is tied to non­white identity as its opposite (as purported in Ian Lopez’s work)?
  3. What is the transparency phenomenon (as defined by Ian Lopez)? What, for Lopez, is the link between naturalization and reproduction? Assess the validity of Lopez’s argument on the connection between naturalization and reproduction.



Academic LevelCollege (1-2 years: Freshmen, Sophomore)
Subject AreaHistory
Paper Type Research paper
Number of Pages5 Page(s)/1375 words
Paper FormatMLA
SpacingDouble Spaced

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