Animal rights and unethical meat-eating
This work is to create an outline.
Subject: Animal rights and unethical meat-eating. (You have to create a title focus on this
You outline should construct an argument like
Claim—– what’s your argument?
Grounds ——What’s your evidence?
Warrant—— What’s reasoning connects your
evidence of your argument?
Backing——–Why should the reader agree with
Qualifier——-What are the limits of your argument?
(You must have those in your outline.)
Also, you may know in an outline, the most important part is
that 3 effects.
2, Cause and effects
Cause 🙁 1) Capitalism (2) Human needs meat to survive.
Effect: (1) Environment (harmful)
(2) Consumer (unhealthy)
(3) Animals (cruel, suffer.)
Maybe A little solution.
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You should have many powerful ideas to mention why
those 3 effect is important. ( You can change those cause and
effects if you have a better idea.)
Requirement: (please read carefully, follow
the requirement exactly.)
1. Your outline should follow the example that I give you.
2. Your outline should be divided into three (3) very distinct sections marked with Roman
numerals: I: Introduction; II: Body, and III: Conclusion.
3. Your outline’s Introduction should be organized in such a way that it will include at least two
4. Your outline introductory section should conclude with the thesis. (The thesis must
focus on 3 effects.)
5. Your thesis should make a debatable statement. (You know a good thesis makes
your paper successful.)
6. Your body should begin with a transitional topic sentence that bridges the thesis and the
body coherently and effectively. ( CONSULT THE EXAMPLE)
7. Your body of the essay divided into clear segments that are marked with capital letters. For
example: A: Causes; B: Effects; C: Solutions.
8. Your outline’s capital letters sections should be divided into sub-sections that are marked with
Arabic numbers. For example: Under the section marked “A: Causes” there may be several
sub-sections marked 1: Cause 1; 2: Cause 2, etc.
9. Your outline should address naysayers. It must follow Gerald Graff’s
templates for doing. (Please search “SKEPTICS MAY OBJECT”
on google, it has a very clearly PDF file you can read, when you can
understand how to do this.)
10. Your outline should include the “So what?” and “Who cares?”
They are positioned where they work the best. (You also can find a
PDF file of so what and who cares on google, make sure in your
outline use those templates very clearly.)
11. You also need “But Don’t Get Me Wrong”, which shows us how to
use metacommentary to clarify and elaborate. Metacommentary is to
restate what other people’s words in your own words and voice your
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own opinion. The authors offer different templates for introducing
metacommentary. (This one cannot be found on the internet, I just give
you several templates.)
(1) Ultimately, then my goal is to demonstrate
(2) In other words, ____________.
(3) To put it another way, ______________.
(4) What X is saying here is that ___________________.
(5) Consider_____________, for example.
(6) Although some reader may object that___________, I
would answer that_______.
(9-11 is very important, please search the file on google and read
carefully, use wisely.)
12, Also, you must use Gerald Graff’s sandwich approach when
using quotes. (Consult the example, read carefully. You
can find how to do this. Just like.)
A. The process of global warming begins when carbon dioxide in the atmosphere traps heat,
which causes the earth’s temperature to rise. In the last century, humans have begun to
burn more coal and oil and by doing so, increasing the amount of carbon dioxide in the
atmosphere which is speeding up the process of global warming (Gelbspan 19-20).
1. Journalist, environmental activist, and author, Ross Gelbspan, writes about global
warming in “Global Warming Poses a Serious Threat.”
2. He states humans are responsible for the increase of carbon dioxide which causes
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(When you use naysayers, you should have (1 and 2) to
summary his/hers ideas. When you can make agree or disagree.)
13, when you have argument, you also need to use Gerald GRAFF’S templates. Such
as, Yet some readers may challenge my view by insisting that __________________. ( In here, you
can use sources 10 to make argument. In you outline, you must have argument like this templates.)
Search on google, this one is included in SKEPTICES MAY OBJECT.)
Sources: (.In your outline it must including all the sources I
give you. I already check, all of those sources you can find in
internet. Search it, read carefully, and use those sources wisely.
11and 12 are very important, make sure you read the article
1, Boggs, C. "Corporate Power, Ecological Crisis, and Animal Rights." Fast Capitalism. 2007.
Web. 22 March 2014 <http://www.uta.edu/huma/agger/fastcapitalism/2_2/boggs.html>
2, Broudy, O. " Factory Farming Ignores the Suffering of Animals." Salon.com. 8 May 2006. Web.
22 March 2014 <www.salon.com>
3, Katz, D. " Eating well vs. being good: can we ethically eat animals?" The Huffington Post. 20
September 2011. Web. 22 March 2014 <http://www.huffingtonpost.com/david-katz-md/ethics-of-
4, Overton, K. "When animals suffer, so do we." The Washington Post. 12 April 2006. Web. 22
March 2014 <www.washingtonpost.com/wp-
5, Vaknin, S. "Whether a right or not, animals should be treated morally." Animal Liberation Front.
9 October 2006. Web. 22 March 2014
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6, Wells, T. "The case for ethical warning labels on animal products." 3 Quarks Daily. 7 January
2014. Web. 22 March 2014 http://www.abc.net.au/religion/articles/2014/01/07/3921943.htm
7, Regan, Tom. “Animal Are Entitled to Rights.” At Issue: Animal Experimentation .
8, Alex, Kirby. “Hungry World Must Eat Less Meat.” BBC News.
9, American Welfare Act.” United State Department of Agriculture.
10, Tibor R. Machan “Human ought to use Nature to Serve Their Own Needs.”
http://chapters.scarecrowpress.com/07/425/074253345Xch1.pdf ( This sources is opposite side of
the subject, you can use this sources to make argument.)
11 and 12. You also need two sources form Gerry Spence: Easy in
the harness. And Tree hugger. Those two sources you can’t find
on internet, but I will give you those two article. Read carefully.
Those two sources perhaps the most important sources that you
must including in your outline. (Check the file to get this article.)
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(This example comes from another subject. But
all the requirement is same. I require you Read
and Consult it. Follow the step by step exactly.
Make sure you have all the requirement in your
own subject. Make sure your letter and number’s
sequence is correct.)
Accelerated by humans and now out of their control: The challenge of global warming
I. Global warming is a naturally occurring process, in the last decades however, this process is
moving much faster due to human pollution.
1. The outcome of this warming results in extreme weather conditions that could be
destructive to humanity.
2. In the process of fighting earth’s rapid warming, humanity must face several
challenges with capitalism as its biggest obstacle, and it is doubtful whether it could
B. The process of global warming begins when carbon dioxide in the atmosphere traps heat,
which causes the earth’s temperature to rise. In the last century, humans have begun to
burn more coal and oil and by doing so, increasing the amount of carbon dioxide in the
atmosphere which is speeding up the process of global warming (Gelbspan 19-20). (Just
like here. You should have some information about the sources.)
3. Journalist, environmental activist, and author, Ross
Gelbspan, writes about global warming in “Global Warming
Poses a Serious Threat.”
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4. He states humans are responsible for the increase of carbon
dioxide which causes global warming.( Small summary, general
information about his idea)
C. Capitalism, the current dominating economic force, is driving society’s behavior to
trying to increase profit at the coast of many things, and most important among them, the
environment. Some people claim that capitalism and the environment cannot sustain
each other (Patterson 74-76).
1. Professor of sociology at the University of Toledo, Rubin Patterson, discusses the
relationship between capitalism and the environment in “A Great Dilemma
Generates Another Great Transformation: Incompatibility of Capitalism and
2. He claims that capitalism and the environment cannot co-exist.
D. The human effects on global warming will not be significantly reduced because of
the pressures of capitalism, the world’s economic system, until major damage
occurs. (Your introduction should end with thesis in your own subject, just like
II. Although global warming is a serious threat to humans, the problem is still growing each
year. (Your body should begin with a transitional topic sentence that
bridges the thesis and the body coherently and effectively in your
own subject, just like this.)
A. There are several issues that are mainly responsible for causing global warming.
1. The practical cause for global warming is greenhouse gases, and although there are
several types of gases, the most common and harmful is carbon dioxide.
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a. Carbon dioxide in the atmosphere traps heat.
1) For the last 10,000 years, humans have enjoyed a constant level of carbon
dioxide until 100 years ago when they started to burn more coal and oil,
which razed the concentration of carbon.
2) Their intensive usage of these energy sources increased the
average global temperature of earth (Gelbspan 21).
a) Journalist, environmental activist, and
author, Ross Gelbspan discusses human
involvement in global warming in his paper
“Global Warming Poses a SeriousThreat.”
b) States humans are responsible for the
increase of carbon dioxide which causes
c) Urges corporate leaders and political
activists to act faster in their efforts to deal
with the climate change crisis. (Just like
here, you should give a small summary of
author’s idea and information. Consult it,
use the sources in your own subject.)
3) The discussion of greenhouse gases is in fact an indication of direct human-
involvement in the rapid increase in earth’s temperature.
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b. As McManus points out, the raise in carbon dioxide in the atmosphere is not due
to human oil burning, but to natural reasons involving solar activity, and that
more carbon dioxide in the atmosphere is actually good for plants (3).
2) Publisher and writer, John McManus, does not agree with the idea that global
warming is caused by humans.
3) Argues people who claim that humans are endangering the future of
mankind, by causing atmospheric temperature to rise, ignore scientific facts.
4) Shows that scientific evidence which indicates an increase in carbon dioxide
is, in fact, caused by and benefits nature.
c. However, these are wrong assumptions which are only partially true.
1) The evidence for humans causing the rise in carbon in the atmosphere is
conclusive (Gelbspan 19).
2) The fact that more carbon is good for plants is true to a point at which it
becomes bad for them, and for the environment (Gelbspan 20).
2. Lack of education that results in lack of knowledge and different viewpoints is a
reason of continuous pollution.
a. Lack of knowledge in some populations also contributes to continuous pollution
1) This lack of knowledge could be a result of education (Rischard).
a) In his book, J. F. Rischard, former World’s Bank vice
president discusses the lack of education as an issue
that affects the environment in chapter 13 “Sharing
Our Humanity: Issues Requiring a Global
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b) Talks about twenty of the most important global
problems of the twenty-first century.
c) States that Human societies are not prepared to deal
with such rapid changes, and need adjustments.
2) According to Gelpsen, the lack of knowledge can also come from being
misled by politicians or the media, who have their own interests (20).
(Follow MLA to use quotes marks.)
a) Journalist, environmental activist, and author, Ross
Gelbspan also argues about intentional deception.
b) Claims that the oil industry lobbyists and the media
were discounting the evidence in accordance to their
c) States that when awareness of the issue is growing
there are less people that disregard global warming.
b. Viewpoint is an important reason in continuous pollution.
1) American attorney Gerry Spence discusses viewpoint and its negative
prospects in “Tree Hugger: The Tyranny of Viewpoint. (use your sources
a) In his essay, Spence claims that all living things have
natural rights, but humans tend to take these rights
away in accordance to their own view point (149-154).
b) States humans tend to have a lack of free thinking
which can cause them to make wrong decisions (149-
150). (consult it.)
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2) German thinker and medical doctor Alfred Schwitzer shares Spence’s beliefs
regarding to non-human rights, as indicated in David Goodin’s “Schweitzer
Reconsidered: The Applicability Of Reverence For Life As Environmental
a) Claims that good consists in maintaining, assisting, and
enhancing life (Goodin 405).
b) Argues humans owe to all living things the same care
and respect that they wish for themselves (Goodin 404-
3. Capitalism stands in conflict with the well-being of the environment.
a. Some people claim that capitalism is more important than the environment. The
world’s economic system fulfills the needs of millions of people around the
world thus hurting the capitalist system will result in far more casualties than as a
result of global warming (Boudreaux 2).
1) Professor of economics, Donald Boudreaux, argues in favor of capitalism in
“Cool on the Idea of Cooling Global Warming.”
2) Claims irrational environmentalists are trying to use people’s fear of global
warming and their ignorance of the benefits of capitalism to drastically
change human civilization.
3) Argues that keeping the planet from overheating in the next decade is not
more important than is cooperation within markets (13).
4) He claims that without capitalism billions of humans will soon die, and Gives
examples of how the system is important for every basic need.
5) Says that even in the worst case of global warming damage, maintaining the
market-inspired cooperation is more crucial.
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b. As beneficial as the capitalist economic system is for the development of society
with technology, it has a price that is far more dangerous to humanity and the
c. This is important because the force of capitalism is so dominant in today’s
society that it seems unlikely for people to be able to change the system in a way
that will stop its harmful effect on the environment.
1) Professor of sociology at the University of Toledo, Rubin Patterson,
discusses the relationship between capitalism and the environment in his
2) Patterson claims that in the competitive capitalist system, “corporations seek
to appropriate nature for private gain, while the costs of the environmental
abuse are shared commonly” (75).
3) Claims that capitalism and the environment cannot co-exist.
4) Argues the economic system will not be changed easily.
B. The effects of global warming cause changes that affect the whole world’s natural
1. Climate change creates an unhealthy environment with extreme weather conditions.
a. Heat waves will become more likely and more intense over the course of decades
under current climate change (EPA n. pag).
b. Some of the worst droughts in 70 years are being experienced (Gelbspan 23-24).
c. Decreased fresh water availability will cause widespread water stress (EPA n.
d. In agriculture and forestry, there will be damage to crops, land degradation, wind
throw of trees, and fire dangers (EPA n. pag).
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e. Extreme natural disasters, such as hurricanes, mudslides, and cyclones, are going
to be more intense and cause great damage.
1) The United States Environmental Agency is an agency of the federal
government of the United States charged with protecting human health and
2) Claims human-induced climate change can alter the severity of extremes such
as heat waves, cold waves, storms, floods, and droughts.
3) Asserts that since the 1970s there are increases in the intensity and duration
of such extreme events.
4) These events, as presented in a table, will have effects on agriculture, water
resources, human health, and the industry.
5) Claims that it is not possible to directly link any one extreme event to
human-caused climate change, however, it lists emissions of climate-altering
gases as some of the triggers for climate change.
2. Populations and societies get hurt as a result of global warming.
a. There will be increased risk of heat related mortality, deaths through infectious
diseases (lung disease), floods, and other stress-related events (EPA n. pag).
b. For the industry and settlements, there will be disruption of commerce, transport
societies due to flooding, and reduced hydropower potentials due to water shortages,
and also disruption of societies by floods and high winds (EPA n. pag).
C. The solutions for the problem of global warming have to do with global unity, but are
difficult to obtain.
1. Intergovernmental efforts should form a coalition of as many partners as they can in
order to make progress, and to bring initiatives to scale (Hale 90).
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a. Former congress member and lawyer, Thomas Hale, talks about the importance
of many countries joining the intergovernmental efforts and address climate
change in “A Climate Coalition of the Willing.”
b. Claims intergovernmental efforts to limit the gases that cause climate change are
c. The main reason for their failure, as he argues, is the unwillingness of the two
major emitters, China and the U.S., to take drastic measures.
d. States intergovernmental efforts should form a coalition of as many partners as
they can in order to make progress, and to bring initiatives to scale.
e. Claims that in the end of this process the multilateral process itself will be
reassembled, and that the world will be able to efficiently fight global warming.
2. In chapter 11 “Inherently Global Issues” of his book, Rischard states that some
problems are “insoluble outside a framework of global collective action involving all
nations of the world (65).”
3. Agreements have to be made, including new targets for rich countries and new
efficiency targets for developing ones (“Wilted Greenery” 3).
a. In “Wilted Greenery.” Economist 401.8762 (2011): 73-74. Academic Search
Premier. Web. 23 Mar. 2012. , these kinds of agreements are discussed.
b. Stated that the U.N.’s round of climate change talks open in Durban and that it
will be difficult to avoid a deadlock.
c. The problem, as pointed out, is that the biggest polluters, China and America,
are not obliging the Kyoto agreement for reducing emissions, and by doing so
they are causing other developed countries to feel cheated and reject further
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d. Other developing countries, as stated, have urgent local issues they must address
at the expense of the environment, and gave India as an example for their need of
e. Argued that this conflict could lead to another deadlock.
4. Reaching these agreements can be difficult.
a. The problem with these kinds of agreements is that it involves many countries,
and is likely to reach a deadlock (“Wilted Greenery” 1-4).
b. The U.S. and China, being the world’s largest polluters, are not adopting the
international obligations required by the collective efforts of environmental
meetings such as Kyoto (Hale 89-93).
|Academic Level||College (3-4 years: Junior, Senior)|
|Paper Type||Research paper|
|Number of Pages||7 Page(s)/1925 words|